El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of a naturally occurring global climate cycle known as the ‘El Niño-Southern Oscillation' (ENSO). They disrupt normal patterns of wind and rainfall, in different ways, in many parts of the world — including New Zealand.
The NCCRA assessment was commissioned by the Ministry for the Environment and has identified the most significant risks we face from climate change. It will feed into the Government’s national adaptation plan.
For more than a century, a network of volunteers across New Zealand have been measuring the climate and weather and sending their observations each month to be entered into the New Zealand climate database.
The Southern Annular Mode, or SAM, is a ring of climate variability that encircles the South Pole and extends out to the latitudes of New Zealand. The SAM involves alternating windiness and storm activity between the mid-latitudes, where New Zealand is located, and higher latitudes, such as over the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.