NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136 - The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand

Aotearoa New Zealand’s marine biodiversity checklist has been updated, representing an increase of 3,630 known living species since the turn of the century. The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand represents our current knowledge of biodiversity, including sponges, corals, hydroids, worms, molluscs, crustaceans, sea stars, fish, birds, mammals, reptiles and algae. The total number of known living species in this update is 18,494, a 24 per cent increase since the last update.

Code: NBM 136

Authors: Kelly, M.; Mills, S.; Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C.; Nelson, W. (Eds)

Citation for overall memoir: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.

Keywords for the memoir:

Acanthocephala, Animalia, Annelida, Appendicularia, Ascidiacea, Aves, bony fishes, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, cartilaginous fishes, Chlorophyta, Choanoflagellatea, Chordata, Chromista, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Ctenophora, Dicyemida, Echinodermata, Foraminifera, hagfishes, Ichthyosporea, lancelets, Gastrotricha, Gnathostomulida, Insecta, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, macroalgae, Mammalia, Mollusca, Nematoda, Nemertea, Ochrophyta, Opisthokonta-Holozoa, otoliths, Phaeophyceae, Phoronida, Plantae, Platyhelminthes, Porifera, Prasinodermatophyta, Priapulida, Pycnogonida, Reptilia, Rhodophyta, Rotifera, Tardigrada, Thaliacea, Tunicata, Xenacoelomorpha, marine biodiversity, marine biota, extant, extinct, fossils, operational taxonomic units, unicellular lineages, taxonomically indeterminate taxa, inventory, metadata, Aotearoa New Zealand, New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone, Extended Continental Shelf

Availability: A printed hard copy will be available for purchase early in 2024. A downloadable copy is freely available through the links on this web page.

The publication was edited by: Michelle Kelly, Sadie Mills, Marianna Terezow, Carina Sim-Smith & Wendy Nelson. It is made possible by 67 experts at NIWA, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira, the University of Otago Ōtākou Whakaihu Waka, GNS Science Te Pū Ao, as well as overseas institutions and independent taxonomists.

Downloads 

N.B.The entire publication is a large PDF file and detailed in the downloadable chapters below

The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory [PDF 133MB]

Chapter details are downloadable as .zip files. N.B. Once downloaded you can open the .zip files from your downloads folder. Each zip file contains the chapter PDF file and a chapter supplementary file in Excel spreadsheet format.

Chapter Phylum/Group Memoir PDF chapter citation NIWA Library server link
Overall PDF Overall PDF Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136.pdf https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136.pdf

Preface Kelly, M., Mills, S., Nelson, W. (2023) Updating our marine biodiversity inventory (Preface).
Pp. 10–29 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New
Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-preface.pdf
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch00.pdf

Opisthokonta-Holozoa Leadbeater, B.S.C. (2023) Chapter 1. Opisthokonta-Holozoa, unicellular lineages classes
Choanoflagellatea (choanoflagellates) & Ichthyosporea (holozoan parasites). Pp. 33–37 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S.,
Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine
biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch01.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch01.zip

Foraminifera Hayward, B.W. (2023) Chapter 2. Kingdom Chromista, phylum Foraminifera (foraminifera).
Pp. 39–58 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New
Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch02.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch02.zip

Ochrophyta, Prasinodermatophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta Nelson, W., Neill, K., D’Archino, R. (2023) Chapter 3. Kingdom Chromista, phylum Ochrophyta,
and kingdom Plantae, phyla Prasinodermatophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta (macroalgae). Pp. 61–80 in:
Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand.
Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch03.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch03.zip

Porifera Kelly, M., Sim-Smith, C. (2023) Chapter 4. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Porifera (sponges). Pp.
83–109 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New
Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch04.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch04.zip

Ctenophora Mills, C.E., Haddock, S.H.D., Bezio, N. (2023) Chapter 5. Kingdom Animalia, phylum
Ctenophora (comb jellies). Pp. 111–129 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The
Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch05.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch05.zip

Cnidaria Macpherson, D., Tracey, D., Bilewitch, J., Opresko, D., Bo, M., Kitahara, M.V., Cairns, S., Sinniger,
F., Kessel, G., Alderslade, P., Rodríguez, E., Neill, K., Miranda, L.S., Schuchert, P., Gordon, D.P. (2023) Chapter
6. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Cnidaria (corals, medusae, anemones, hydroids, staurozoans, & myxozoans). Pp.
131–155 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New
Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch06.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch06.zip

Xenacoelomorpha Gordon, D.P. (2023) Chapter 7. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Xenacoelomorpha (acoel &
xenoturbellid worms). Pp. 157–161 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The
Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch07.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch07.zip

Platyhelminthes Presswell, B., Bennett, J. (2023) Chapter 8. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Platyhelminthes
(flatworms, cestodes, trematodes, & monogeneans). Pp. 163–179 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith,
C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory.
NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch08.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch08.zip

Dicyemida Presswell, B. (2023) Chapter 9. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Dicyemida (dicyemids & rhombozoans). Pp. 181–184 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch09.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch09.zip

Gastrotricha Todaro, M.A. (2023) Chapter 10. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Gastrotricha (hairy-bellied
worms). Pp. 187–191 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota
of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch10.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch10.zip

Acanthocephala Presswell, B., Bennett, J. (2023) Chapter 11. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Acanthocephala
(thorny-headed worms). Pp. 193–200 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The
Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch11.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch11.zip

Rotifera Duggan, I.C., Shiel, R.J. (2023) Chapter 12. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Rotifera (wheel
animals). Pp. 203–206 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota
of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch12.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch12.zip

Gnathostomulida Sterrer, W. (2023) Chapter 13. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Gnathostomulida (lesser jaw worms). Pp. 209–212 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch13.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch13.zip

Mollusca Walton, K., Marshall, B.A., Spencer, H.G. (2023) Chapter 14. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Mollusca (clams, slugs, snails, cephalopods, & kin). Pp. 215–237 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch14.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch14.zip

Brachiopoda Robinson, J., MacFarlan, D., Waterhouse, B. (2023) Chapter 15. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Brachiopoda (lamp shells). Pp. 239–255 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch15.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch15.zip

Phoronida Gordon, D.P. (2023) Chapter 16. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Phoronida (horseshoe worms). Pp. 257–261 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch16.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch16.zip

Bryozoa Gordon, D.P. (2023) Chapter 17. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Bryozoa (bryozoans). Pp. 263– 281 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch17.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch17.zip

Annelida Read, G.B. (2023) Chapter 18. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Annelida (bristleworms & kin). Pp.
283–297 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New
Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch18.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch18.zip

Nemertea Schnabel, K.E., Norenburg, J., Kelly, M. (2023) Chapter 19. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Nemertea (ribbon worms). Pp. 299–303 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch19.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch19.zip

Echinodermata Anderson, O., Davey, N., Mills, S., Neill, K., O’Hara, T. (2023) Chapter 20. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Echinodermata (sea stars, brittle stars, basket stars, snake stars, sea lilies, feather stars, sea urchins, & sea cucumbers). Pp. 305–319 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch20.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch20.zip

Chordata Tunicata Page, M., Macpherson, D., Décima, M. (2023) Chapter 21. Kingdom Animalia, phylum
Chordata, subphylum Tunicata, class Ascidiacea (ascidians & sea squirts), class Appendicularia (appendicularians),
class Thaliacea (salps). Pp. 321–329 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The
Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch21.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch21.zip

Chordata Fishes Struthers, C.D., Stewart, A.L., Roberts, C.D., Schwarzhans, W., Barker, J.J., Kortet, S. (2023) Chapter 22. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata (lancelets, hagfishes, cartilaginous & bony fishes, & fossil fishes identified from otoliths). Pp. 331–371 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch22.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch22.zip

Chordata Reptiles Hitchmough, R., van Winkel, D. (2023) Chapter 23. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata, class Reptilia (marine reptiles). Pp. 373–378 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch23.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch23.zip

Chordata Birds Tennyson, A.J.D. (2023) Chapter 24. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata, class Aves (seabirds). Pp. 381–388 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch24.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch24.zip

Chordata Mammals Marx, F.G., Richards, M.D., Fordyce, R.E. (2023) Chapter 25. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata, class Mammalia (marine mammals). Pp. 391–397 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch25.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch25.zip

Tardigrada Pérez-Pech, W.A., Hansen, J.G. (2023) Chapter 26. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Tardigrada (marine tardigrades). Pp. 399–402 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch26.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch26.zip

Arthropoda Pycnogonida Staples, D., Neill, K. (2023) Chapter 27. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Arthropoda, class Pycnogonida (sea spiders). Pp. 405–409 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch27.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch27.zip

Arthropoda Crustacea Schnabel, K.A., Peart, R.A., Bradford-Grieve, J., Eagar, S., Hosie, A., Buckeridge, J. (2023) Chapter 28. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea (shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnacles, & kin). Pp. 411–445 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch28.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch28.zip

Arthropoda Insecta Smith, B.J. (2023) Chapter 29. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta (marine insects). Pp. 447–453 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch29.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch29.zip

Kinorhyncha Grzelak, K., Sørensen, M.V. (2023) Chapter 30. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Kinorhyncha (mud dragons). Pp. 455–462 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch30.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch30.zip

Loricifera Sørensen, M.V., Grzelak, K. (2023) Chapter 31. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Loricifera (corset animals). Pp. 465–469 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch31.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch31.zip

Priapulida Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (2023) Chapter 32. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Priapulida (priapulid worms). Pp. 471–475 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp. https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch32.zip https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch32.zip

Nematoda Leduc, D., Presswell, B. (2023) Chapter 33. Kingdom Animalia, phylum Nematoda
(roundworms). Pp. 477–491 in: Kelly, M., Mills, S., Terezow, M., Sim-Smith, C., Nelson, W. (Eds) The Marine Biota
of Aotearoa New Zealand. Updating our marine biodiversity inventory. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 136, 494 pp.
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch33.zip
https://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAbm136-ch33.zip

Contact

Principal Technician - Marine Biology