Bottom lining is the installation of a flexible covering over the top of beds of aquatic weeds, similar to using weed matting in home gardens. The lining is held in place by weights (e.g., rocks or sandbags) or by pinning. This control method is also called ‘benthic barriers’.
Diquat is a herbicide (chemical) that has been used in New Zealand for many decades for submerged (underwater) weed control and also on agricultural crops. It is registered for freshwater use in New Zealand.
FRAM is powerful and simple to use - series of straight-forward questions about the biology and behaviour of any alien species lead to it being ranked and categorised as a high, intermediate, or low ecological risk.