Resource trade-off models

Resource trade-off models are spatial models that use biological, environmental and socio-economic data to optimise management (protected area designation) across potentially conflicting uses, or across different ecosystem services.

Software used includes Zonation (Moilanen et al. 2009) and Marxan (Ball et al. 2009).

Example of Zonation trade-off modelling to inform Chatham Rock Phosphate resource consent application. [Image: NIWA]

Model summary

Recent applications of the resource trade-off model include Chatham Rock Phosphate Environment Protection Authority application; the Ross Sea, Antarctica MPA application; South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem taxa analysis.


Ball, I. R., Possingham, H. P. & Watts, M. 2009. Marxan and relatives: software for spatial conservation prioritisation. Spatial conservation prioritisation: quantitative methods and computational tools. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 185-195.

Moilanen, A., Kujala, H. & Leathwick, J. 2009. The Zonation framework and software for conservation prioritization. Spatial conservation prioritization, 196-210.


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Principal Scientist - Marine Ecology
Research subject: Ecosystems